Odessa - Одесса

A city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read".Created by: Romanov Empire - Империя РомановыхDated: 1901
Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa
Odessa was the site of a 6th century BC Greek trade settlement, possibly established by city of Histria. In the Middle Ages, Odessa was ruled by nomadic tribes of Petchenegs, Cumans, the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Ottoman Empire. The site of present-day Odessa became a fortress known as Khadjibey (named for Hacı I Giray, Kocibey in English). During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea (1441–1466), the Crimean Tatar Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Empire and, and in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania. It fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529.

During the 1760-70s Cossacks took the fortress several times and in 1789 Russian troops defeated the Ottomans and the city of Odessa was founded by Catherine the Great, Russian Empress. The Moldavian colony that later will be known as "Moldavanka" was already there. De Ribas and Franz de Volan recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the region's major port. In 1794 Catherine approved the founding of the new port-city and invested money in construction.

From 1795 to 1814, the population of Odessa increased 15 times and reached 20 thousand people. In the mid-19th century, Odessa became a popular resort among the Russian upper classes. The first city plan was designed by F. Devollan. Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the former Moldavian colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, it emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such as the Italians Francesco Carlo Boffo and Giovanni Torricelli, Moldovanka was included in the general city plan.

The new city quickly became a major success. Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 1803 and 1814. Having fled the French Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. He is credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos. His contributions to the city are mentioned by Mark Twain in his travelogue Innocents Abroad: "I mention this statue and this stairway because they have their story. Richelieu founded Odessa – watched over it with paternal care – labored with a fertile brain and a wise understanding for its best interests – spent his fortune freely to the same end – endowed it with a sound prosperity, and one which will yet make it one of the great cities of the Old World".

Another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron, succeeded him in office. In 1819, the city became a free port, a status it retained until 1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans (including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for example Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards, Grecheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in Odessa between 1823 and 1824. In his letters, he wrote that Odessa was a city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read".

Odessa's growth was interrupted by the Crimean War of 1853–1856, during which it was bombarded by British and Imperial French naval forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866, the city was linked by rail with Kiev and Kharkiv as well as with Iaşi in Romania. By the early 1900s Odessa had become a large, thriving city, with European architecture and electrified urban transport.

The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th century, and by 1897 Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the population. They were, due to interethnic conflict that had existed throughout the 19th century, repeatedly subjected to anti-Jewish backlash. Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905. Many Odessan Jews fled abroad after 1882, particularly to the Ottoman region that became Palestine, and the city became an important base of support for Zionism.

In 1905, Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin and Lenin's Iskra. Sergei Eisenstein's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the film caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in Odessa. The film was made at Odessa's Cinema Factory, one of the oldest cinema studios in the former Soviet Union.

Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during Ukrainian-Soviet War, Odessa saw two Bolsheviks armed insurgencies, the second of which succeeded in establishing their control over the city; for the following months, the city became a center of the Odessa Soviet Republic. After signing of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty all Bolshevik forces were driven out by the combined armed forces of Central Powers, providing support to the Ukrainian People's Republic. With the end of the World War I and withdrawal of armies of Central Powers, the Soviet forces fought for control over the country with the army of Ukrainian People's Republic. Few months later the city was occupied by the French Army and the Greek Army that supported the Russian White Army in struggle with the Bolsheviks. The Ukrainian general Nikifor Grigoriev who sided with Bolsheviks managed to drive the unwelcome Triple Entente forces out of the city, but Odessa was soon retaken by the Russian White Army. By 1920 the Soviet Red Army managed to overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Army and secure the city.
533 Media in collectionpage 1 of 6
Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

Picryl description: Public domain image of a historical building, landmark architecture, world heritage, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa, Lustdorf shore 1900-1914
Odessa street, 1900-1914 color postcard

Odessa street, 1900-1914 color postcard

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Shopping street 1900-1914

Odessa, Shopping street 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of a department store, commercial building, downtown, shopping center, 19th-20th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

New Burse, Odessa

New Burse, Odessa

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Monument to Catherine II The Great in Odessa

Monument to Catherine II The Great in Odessa

Picryl description: Public domain image of a statue, monument, sculpture, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa, Mendelevich Passage. 1900-1914

Odessa, Mendelevich Passage. 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Arrival of Nicholas II to Odessa, 1914-1915

Arrival of Nicholas II to Odessa, 1914-1915

The stay of members of the imperial family in Odessa and the mud bath at the Kuyalnik estuary.1914-1915 - Пребывание членов императорской фамилии в Одессе и Грязелечебница на Куяльницком лимане.1914-1915

Odessa University, 1900-1914
Odessa, Greek st. 1900-1914

Odessa, Greek st. 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Deribas 1900-1914

Odessa, Deribas 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater Entrance
Odessa, Seaport Church, 1900-1914

Odessa, Seaport Church, 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, 1900-1914

Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, 1900-1914
Postcard. Cathedral. Odessa, 1900-1914

Postcard. Cathedral. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of vintage postcard, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Vine Ad. Odessa, 1900-1914

Vine Ad. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard advertisement, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Provodnik Joint Company building 1900-1914

Odessa, Provodnik Joint Company building 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of a department store, commercial building, downtown, shopping center, 19th-20th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa, 1900-1914

Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

Public domain photograph of stairs, steps, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

Picryl description: Public domain image of a historical building, landmark architecture, world heritage, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa, The Great Fountain. Fishing boats 1900-1914

Odessa, The Great Fountain. Fishing boats 1900-1914

Langeron. 1st class bath houses. Ланжерон. Купальни I-го класса.

Odessa boulevard, 1900-1914
Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

Public domain photograph of theater building, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Libman cafe 1900-1914

Odessa, Libman cafe 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Department Store. 1900-1914

Odessa, Department Store. 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of pharmacy, convenience store, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Richelieu St. Odessa, 1900-1914

Richelieu St. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Russia 1900-1914

Odessa, Russia 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, vintage travel, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa seaport view, 1900-1914

Odessa seaport view, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Catherine II monument. Odessa, 1900-1914

Catherine II monument. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Prison Square, Odessa, 1900-1914

Prison Square, Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa harbor, 1900-1914

Odessa harbor, 1900-1914

Public domain image of a historic view of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, free to use, no copyright restrictions - Picryl description

The house of the "Life insurance company". Odessa, 1900-1914

The house of the "Life insurance company". Odessa, 1900-1914

The house of the "Life insurance company". Odessa, 1900-1914 Public domain photograph of a palace, mansion building in Russia, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Zhukovskaya st, Odessa, 1900-1914

Zhukovskaya st, Odessa, 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of a department store, commercial building, downtown, shopping center, 19th-20th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa, Deribas st. 1900-1914

Odessa, Deribas st. 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Telephone Station, 1900-1914

Odessa Telephone Station, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of train station, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Theater, 1900-1914

Odessa Theater, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of theater building, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa view, 1900-1914

Odessa view, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Harbor and Lighthouse

Odessa Harbor and Lighthouse

Picryl description: Public domain photo of vintage naval ship postcard, free to use, no copyright restrictions image.

Odessa Cathedral in 1900s

Odessa Cathedral in 1900s

Public domain photograph of vintage postcard, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Cathedral postcards

Odessa Cathedral postcards

Picryl description: Public domain image of a historical building, landmark architecture, world heritage, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Drivers License, Odessa, 1914

Drivers License, Odessa, 1914

Public domain photograph of military personnel, army, militia, infantry, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Mercedes Benz Dealer Advertising, Odessa, 1900-1914
Reno and Berlie Cars, Dealer Advertising. Odessa, 1900-1914
Voyenny Spusk. Seaport. Odessa, 1900-1914

Voyenny Spusk. Seaport. Odessa, 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of park architecture, palace, chateau, open space, 18th, and 19th-century architecture, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Praktychna Havan, Port of Odessa

Praktychna Havan, Port of Odessa

Public domain photograph of vintage postcard, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Passage of Mendelevich Odessa, 1900-1914

Passage of Mendelevich Odessa, 1900-1914

Пассаж Менделевича Public domain photograph of shopping center, department store building, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Post Office, 1900-1914

Odessa, Post Office, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, vintage travel, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Train Station, 1900-1914

Odessa, Train Station, 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of a historical building, landmark architecture, world heritage, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Cathedral. Odessa, 1900-1914

Cathedral. Odessa, 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of a cathedral or church building, free to use, no copyright restrictions image.

Odessa, Burse Square. 1900-1914

Odessa, Burse Square. 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Cape Malyi Fontan, Odessa

Cape Malyi Fontan, Odessa

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Yacht Club

Odessa Yacht Club

Public domain image of a historic view of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, free to use, no copyright restrictions - Picryl description

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, 19th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description.

Kuyalnik / Andreevsky Estuary - Odessa, 1900-1914

Kuyalnik / Andreevsky Estuary - Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

View of the port from the monument of Richelieu. Odessa Port, 1900-1914

View of the port from the monument of Richelieu. Odessa Port, 1900-191...

Вид на порт от памятника Ришелье.

The Libman coffee house. Odessa, 1900-1914
Odessa, Deribas st. view 1900-1914

Odessa, Deribas st. view 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Potyomkin Stairs 1900-1914

Odessa, Potyomkin Stairs 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of stairs, steps, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, City Hall. 1900-1914

Odessa, City Hall. 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Kefir Ad. 1900-1914
Odessa, 1900-1914

Odessa, 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of a bridge, water, historic structure, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa, commerce building. 1900-1914
Odessa, Lighthouse 1900-1914

Odessa, Lighthouse 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of vintage postcard, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Passage 1900-1914

Odessa, Passage 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain image of a department store, commercial building, downtown, shopping center, 19th-20th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa, Headquarters of Odesskiy Listok Newspaper 1900-1914
Odessa, man Portrait, 1900-1914
Simson Cars, Imported Cars Dealer Ad. Odessa, 1900-1914
Odessa, Catherine St. 1900-1914

Odessa, Catherine St. 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Officers Commons. 1900-1914

Odessa, Officers Commons. 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Seaport of Odessa, 1900-1914

Seaport of Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of historic place, landmark, 19th-century, vintage travel, landscape, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Richelieu monument, 1900-1914

Odessa Richelieu monument, 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, 1900-1914
Ekaterininskaya square and view of Nikolaevsky boulevard, Odessa, 1900-1914

Ekaterininskaya square and view of Nikolaevsky boulevard, Odessa, 1900...

Екатерининская площадь и вид на Николаевский бульвар

Odessa, Ortada 1900-1914

Odessa, Ortada 1900-1914

Берег дачи 'Отрада'. Coast of the country house 'Otrada'.

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Potemkin Stairs, Odessa, 1900-1914

Potemkin Stairs, Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club

Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club

Public domain image of a historic view of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, free to use, no copyright restrictions - Picryl description

Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club

Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club

Public domain image of a historic view of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, free to use, no copyright restrictions - Picryl description

Odessa, Customs Square 1900-1914

Odessa, Customs Square 1900-1914

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of city street market, food vendors, downtown shopping, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Odessa in the summer, 1900-1914

Odessa in the summer, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Hotel Passage, 1900-1914
Odessa, Pushkin st. 1900-1914

Odessa, Pushkin st. 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Postcard. New Burse, Odessa. Russian Empire.

Postcard. New Burse, Odessa. Russian Empire.

Public domain photograph of vintage postcard, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Harbor 1900-1914

Odessa, Harbor 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of historic place, landmark, 19th-century, vintage travel, landscape, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Primorskaya st. Odessa, 1900-1914
New Switzerland. Odessa, 1900-1914

New Switzerland. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Kherson St. Odessa, 1900-1914

Kherson St. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Foggy day in Odessa, 1900-1914
Hydro therapy Clinic, Odessa, 1900-1914

Hydro therapy Clinic, Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Postal Bridge. Odessa, 1900-1914

Postal Bridge. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of 19th-century vintage card, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Pump station. Odessa, 1900-1914
Lighthouse, Odessa, 1900-1914

Lighthouse, Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa Champagne Pavillion, 1900-1914

Odessa Champagne Pavillion, 1900-1914

Public domain photo of a monument, historic place, 19th century, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description.

Vodka Ad. Odessa, 1900-1914
Santsebaher and Co. Brewery. Odessa, 1900-1914

Santsebaher and Co. Brewery. Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of a postcard, historic place view, landmark, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Primus stove ad. 1900-1914
Odessa, 1900-1914

Odessa, 1900-1914

Public domain photograph of historic place, landmark, 19th-century, vintage travel, landscape, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

Picryl description: Public domain image of a historic park, open terrace, world heritage landmark, classical or neoclassical architecture, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Previous

of 6

Next