Odessa - Одесса

A city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read".Created by: Romanov Empire - Империя РомановыхDated: 1901
Odessa was the site of a 6th century BC Greek trade settlement, possibly established by city of Histria. In the Middle Ages, Odessa was ruled by nomadic tribes of Petchenegs, Cumans, the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Ottoman Empire. The site of present-day Odessa became a fortress known as Khadjibey (named for Hacı I Giray, Kocibey in English). During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea (1441–1466), the Crimean Tatar Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Empire and, and in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania. It fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529.

During the 1760-70s Cossacks took the fortress several times and in 1789 Russian troops defeated the Ottomans and the city of Odessa was founded by Catherine the Great, Russian Empress. The Moldavian colony that later will be known as "Moldavanka" was already there. De Ribas and Franz de Volan recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the region's major port. In 1794 Catherine approved the founding of the new port-city and invested money in construction.

From 1795 to 1814, the population of Odessa increased 15 times and reached 20 thousand people. In the mid-19th century, Odessa became a popular resort among the Russian upper classes. The first city plan was designed by F. Devollan. Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the former Moldavian colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, it emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such as the Italians Francesco Carlo Boffo and Giovanni Torricelli, Moldovanka was included in the general city plan.

The new city quickly became a major success. Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 1803 and 1814. Having fled the French Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. He is credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos. His contributions to the city are mentioned by Mark Twain in his travelogue Innocents Abroad: "I mention this statue and this stairway because they have their story. Richelieu founded Odessa – watched over it with paternal care – labored with a fertile brain and a wise understanding for its best interests – spent his fortune freely to the same end – endowed it with a sound prosperity, and one which will yet make it one of the great cities of the Old World".

Another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron, succeeded him in office. In 1819, the city became a free port, a status it retained until 1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans (including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for example Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards, Grecheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in Odessa between 1823 and 1824. In his letters, he wrote that Odessa was a city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read".

Odessa's growth was interrupted by the Crimean War of 1853–1856, during which it was bombarded by British and Imperial French naval forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866, the city was linked by rail with Kiev and Kharkiv as well as with Iaşi in Romania. By the early 1900s Odessa had become a large, thriving city, with European architecture and electrified urban transport.

The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th century, and by 1897 Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the population. They were, due to interethnic conflict that had existed throughout the 19th century, repeatedly subjected to anti-Jewish backlash. Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905. Many Odessan Jews fled abroad after 1882, particularly to the Ottoman region that became Palestine, and the city became an important base of support for Zionism.

In 1905, Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin and Lenin's Iskra. Sergei Eisenstein's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the film caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in Odessa. The film was made at Odessa's Cinema Factory, one of the oldest cinema studios in the former Soviet Union.

Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during Ukrainian-Soviet War, Odessa saw two Bolsheviks armed insurgencies, the second of which succeeded in establishing their control over the city; for the following months, the city became a center of the Odessa Soviet Republic. After signing of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty all Bolshevik forces were driven out by the combined armed forces of Central Powers, providing support to the Ukrainian People's Republic. With the end of the World War I and withdrawal of armies of Central Powers, the Soviet forces fought for control over the country with the army of Ukrainian People's Republic. Few months later the city was occupied by the French Army and the Greek Army that supported the Russian White Army in struggle with the Bolsheviks. The Ukrainian general Nikifor Grigoriev who sided with Bolsheviks managed to drive the unwelcome Triple Entente forces out of the city, but Odessa was soon retaken by the Russian White Army. By 1920 the Soviet Red Army managed to overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Army and secure the city.
533 Media in collectionpage 1 of 6
City Library. Odessa, 1900-1914

City Library. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater

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Summer day in Odessa, 1900-1914

Summer day in Odessa, 1900-1914

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View of Deribasovskaya and Reshelevskaya streets, Opera Theater, Odessa, 1900-1914

View of Deribasovskaya and Reshelevskaya streets, Opera Theater, Odess...

Вид Дерибасовской и Решельевской улиц Public domain photograph related to the history of Russia, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, Cadet Corps 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Cadet Corps 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa, Arkadia 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Arkadia 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa, The Great Fountain. Golden shore, 1900-1914

Odessa, The Great Fountain. Golden shore, 1900-1914

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The Great Fountain. New lighthouse. Odessa, 1900-1914

The Great Fountain. New lighthouse. Odessa, 1900-1914

The Great Fountain. New lighthouse. Большой Фонтан. Новый маяк.

View of Lanzheron from the sea. Odessa, 1900-1914

View of Lanzheron from the sea. Odessa, 1900-1914

View of Lanzheron from the sea. Вид Ланжерона с моря.

Small Fountain. A restaurant. Odessa, 1900-1914

Small Fountain. A restaurant. Odessa, 1900-1914

Small Fountain. A restaurant. Малый Фонтан. Ресторан.

Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa, Customs and Harbor1900-1914

Odessa, Customs and Harbor1900-1914

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Odessa, Andreevsky Liman, 1900-1914

Odessa, Andreevsky Liman, 1900-1914

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Odessa, Richelieu Monument 1900-1914

Odessa, Richelieu Monument 1900-1914

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Praktychna Havan, Port of Odessa

Praktychna Havan, Port of Odessa

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Odessa, Lustdorf shore 1900-1914

Odessa, Lustdorf shore 1900-1914

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Odessa, Arkadia 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Arkadia 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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New Burse, Odessa, Russian Empire, 19th century

New Burse, Odessa, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Deribasovskaya st. Odessa, 1900-1914

Deribasovskaya st. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Steamer Odessa, 1900-1914 - Public domain image of steamship

Steamer Odessa, 1900-1914 - Public domain image of steamship

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Pharmacy and cosmetic products by Segal. Odessa, 1900-1914

Pharmacy and cosmetic products by Segal. Odessa, 1900-1914

Реклама - аптекарские и косметические товары Public domain photograph of theater building, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Shortein Clinic, Odessa, 1900-1914

Shortein Clinic, Odessa, 1900-1914

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Palais-Royale. Odessa, 1900-1914

Palais-Royale. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Kempe Brewery. Odessa, 1900-1914

Kempe Brewery. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Circus Variete. Odessa, 1900-1914

Circus Variete. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Odessa Garden, Main restaurant 1900-1914

Odessa Garden, Main restaurant 1900-1914

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Odessa, Vorontsov Lighthouse. 1900-1914

Odessa, Vorontsov Lighthouse. 1900-1914

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Prakticheskaya gavan (harbor) - Odessa Seaport, 1900-1914

Prakticheskaya gavan (harbor) - Odessa Seaport, 1900-1914

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Medical Buildings. Odessa, 1900-1914

Medical Buildings. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

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Odessa,  Boulevard. 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Odessa, Boulevard. 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Odessa street, 1900-1914 color postcard

Odessa street, 1900-1914 color postcard

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Ekaterina St. Odessa, 1900-1914

Ekaterina St. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

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Nicholas II in Odessa, 1914-1915

Nicholas II in Odessa, 1914-1915

The stay of members of the imperial family in Odessa and the mud bath at the Kuyalnik estuary.1914-1915 - Пребывание членов императорской фамилии в Одессе и Грязелечебница на Куяльницком лимане.1914-1915

Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Ekaterininskaya square and view of Nikolaevsky boulevard, Odessa, 1900-1914

Ekaterininskaya square and view of Nikolaevsky boulevard, Odessa, 1900...

Екатерининская площадь и вид на Николаевский бульвар

Odessa, Ortada 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Ortada 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Берег дачи 'Отрада'. Coast of the country house 'Otrada'.

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

Statue of the Duc de Richelieu, Odessa

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Potemkin Stairs, Odessa, 1900-1914

Potemkin Stairs, Odessa, 1900-1914

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Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Odessa Harbor and Yacht Club - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Odessa, Customs Square 1900-1914

Odessa, Customs Square 1900-1914

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Odessa in the summer, 1900-1914

Odessa in the summer, 1900-1914

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Odessa, Hotel Passage, 1900-1914

Odessa, Hotel Passage, 1900-1914

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Odessa, Pushkin st. 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Pushkin st. 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Postcard. New Burse, Odessa. Russian Empire.

Postcard. New Burse, Odessa. Russian Empire.

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Odessa, Harbor 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Harbor 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Primorskaya st. Odessa, 1900-1914

Primorskaya st. Odessa, 1900-1914

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New Switzerland. Odessa, 1900-1914

New Switzerland. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Kherson St. Odessa, 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Kherson St. Odessa, 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Foggy day in Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Foggy day in Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Hydro therapy Clinic, Odessa, 1900-1914

Hydro therapy Clinic, Odessa, 1900-1914

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Postal Bridge. Odessa, 1900-1914

Postal Bridge. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Pump station. Odessa, 1900-1914

Pump station. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Lighthouse, Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Lighthouse, Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa Champagne Pavillion, 1900-1914

Odessa Champagne Pavillion, 1900-1914

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Vodka Ad. Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire
Santsebaher and Co. Brewery. Odessa, 1900-1914

Santsebaher and Co. Brewery. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

Potemkin Stairs, Potemkin Steps, a giant stairway in Odessa

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Passage Hotel. Odessa, 1900-1914

Passage Hotel. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Odessa, Maly Fountain. 1900-1914

Odessa, Maly Fountain. 1900-1914

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Court House. Odessa, 1900-1914 - Victorian era public domain image

Court House. Odessa, 1900-1914 - Victorian era public domain image

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Odessa, Nikolayev boulevard. 1900-1914

Odessa, Nikolayev boulevard. 1900-1914

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Odessa Harbor - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Odessa Harbor - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Odessa, Deribas and Preobrajenskaya st. Corner. 1900-1914

Odessa, Deribas and Preobrajenskaya st. Corner. 1900-1914

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Odessa, Richelieu St. 1900-1914

Odessa, Richelieu St. 1900-1914

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Seaport of  Odessa, 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Seaport of Odessa, 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Richelieu St. Odessa, 1900-1914

Richelieu St. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Red Cross. Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire

Red Cross. Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire

The stay of members of the imperial family in Odessa and the mud bath at the Kuyalnik estuary.1914-1915 - Пребывание членов императорской фамилии в Одессе и Грязелечебница на Куяльницком лимане.1914-1915

Odessa City Council, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa City Council, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa University, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa University, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Summer in Odessa, Russia. 1900-1914

Summer in Odessa, Russia. 1900-1914

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Odessa Train Station, 1900-1914

Odessa Train Station, 1900-1914

Одесский вокзал Public domain photograph of a palace, mansion building in Russia, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of a tram car, free to use, no copyright restrictions.

Picryl description: Public domain photograph of a tram car, free to us...

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Deribasovskaya, Odessa, 1900-1914

Deribasovskaya, Odessa, 1900-1914

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Palais Royal, Odessa, 1900-1914

Palais Royal, Odessa, 1900-1914

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Odessa, Richelieu Street 1900-1914

Odessa, Richelieu Street 1900-1914

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Odessa street, 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Odessa street, 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Odessa, Alexandrovsky Prospect 1900-1914

Odessa, Alexandrovsky Prospect 1900-1914

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Odessa, Andreevsky Liman 1900-1914

Odessa, Andreevsky Liman 1900-1914

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Odessa, Andreevsky Liman 1900-1914

Odessa, Andreevsky Liman 1900-1914

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Odessa, Theatre view. 1900-1914

Odessa, Theatre view. 1900-1914

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Odessa, Greek st. 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

Odessa, Greek st. 1900-1914 - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Odessa, Deribas 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Deribas 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa, Steamboat to Kherson. 1900-1914

Odessa, Steamboat to Kherson. 1900-1914

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Odessa, Cadet Corps. 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Cadet Corps. 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa, Post office 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Post office 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater Entrance

Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater Entrance

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Odessa, Harbor view 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Harbor view 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa, Seaport Church, 1900-1914

Odessa, Seaport Church, 1900-1914

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Iosif Skvirskiy - Odessa, 1900-1914

Iosif Skvirskiy - Odessa, 1900-1914

Ad: Iosif Skvirskiy - Odessa oranges and lemons Public domain scan of Russian poster, advertisement, free to use, no copyright restrictions image - Picryl description

Odessa, near City Theater, 1900-1914

Odessa, near City Theater, 1900-1914

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Fruit Market. Odessa, 1900-1914

Fruit Market. Odessa, 1900-1914

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Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Moulin Fratelli Anatra Factory, Odessa, 1900-1914

Moulin Fratelli Anatra Factory, Odessa, 1900-1914

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New Burse, Odessa - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

New Burse, Odessa - Russian postcard. Public domain image.

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Odessa, Cable car, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

Odessa, Cable car, 1900-1914, Russian Empire, 19th century

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Odessa, Summer Theater, 1900-1914

Odessa, Summer Theater, 1900-1914

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